UN hid alarming report, almost 10 tons of depleted uranium dropped on Kosovo

Depleted Uranium Engagement Points 6 Apr 99 - 10 Jun 99 - Map produced 18 Jan 01 - Photo: NATO.int

A shocking text by Senegalese Bakary Kante, head of the UN mission in 1999 about the horrific consequences of the bombing of Serbia was never published, “Vesti” reported.

Depleted Uranium Engagement Points 6 Apr 99 - 10 Jun 99 - Map produced 18 Jan 01 - Photo: NATO.int
Depleted Uranium Engagement Points 6 Apr 99 – 10 Jun 99 – Map produced 18 Jan 01 – Photo: NATO.int

In May 1999 the United Nations have hidden from the public the report by Bakari Kante, head of the first mission of UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) about the environmental consequences of the bombing of Yugoslavia.

The UN has never published the text, but parts of it leaked to the public thanks to the interviewee of “Vesti”, American independent journalist Robert Parsons, a reporter from the international institutions in Geneva.

He managed to get Kante’s report from his source in UNEP and publish its parts in June 1999 in Geneva daily “Le Courrier” in an article entitled “Hidden alarming report on the consequences of the bombing of Yugoslavia: Toxins that UN will not see”.

Parsons spoke exclusively for “Vesti” about how reports on the health consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons in the Balkans were censured and changed in the offices of the United Nations.

After 12 days of his stay in Yugoslavia, which was still being bombed at the time, in May 1999, where he was with missions of other agencies of the UN system, Bakary Kante submitted a report to UNEP which speaks of ecological horror: atmosphere and the soil in former Yugoslavia have been permanently contaminated with toxic materials because of the bombing of industrial-chemical complexes and use of depleted uranium weapons.

The report was categorical in the assessment that the future generations living on the bombarded soil will suffer from cancer, leukemia, the number of miscarriages and deformities of newborns will be increased.

Kante’s report further says that because of the bombing, the nature in Yugoslavia has been contaminated with toxic substances among which the most dangerous is polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), highly cancerogenous and responsible for immunological diseases. The report stresses that one liter of PCB is enough to contaminate one billion gallons of water.

PCB is located in the electrical substations and numerous oil refineries which were the target of NATO. It is added that the bombing of numerous factories which processed heavy metals caused, among other things, spreading of cadmium and methylmercury (the most poisonous form of mercury). These are metals that are poisonous even if they are spread on an area of several thousand kilometers. The result – the Danube was poisoned.

In the eight chapter of the report Kante speaks about the pollution caused by the use of depleted uranium weapons. “According to available data, NATO used depleted uranium ammunition targeting military and civil targets”.

A 30 – milimeter ammunition was used. It was fired mostly from aircrafts “A-10”, as well as within cruising missiles “Tomahawk”. These missiles can penetrate 57 mm thick steel.

An A-10 Thunderbolt II from the 81st Fighter Squadron, Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany, pulls away from a tanker (not shown) after refueling on the way to Serbian targets during Operation ALLIED FORCE. - Photo: Wikipedia
An A-10 Thunderbolt II from the 81st Fighter Squadron, Spangdahlem Air Base, Germany, pulls away from a tanker (not shown) after refueling on the way to Serbian targets during Operation ALLIED FORCE. – Photo: Wikipedia

Their load is radioactive and it is believed that they contain uranium 238, whose radiation is approximately 3.4 Mbq. Uranium belongs to a group of toxic elements that enter the second group of radionuclides of very high toxicity. This kind of ammunition is nuclear waste and its use is very dangerous to health.

The use of this ammunition has terrible consequences for the population, because in addition to physical injuries it causes radiological contamination. This contamination has toxic and radiological consequences that cause cancer,” says Kante’s report submitted to the Director General of UNEP, Klaus Töpfer.

Kante further says: “During the use (explosion) of the depleted uranium weapon is produced uranium oxide (U308 and UO2) as well as, among other things, very reactive gases radium and radon. The oxide particles have a width between 0.5 and 5 microns, and wind can carry them to the distance of several hundred kilometers.

Since in the region of Yugoslavia dominate northwestern winds, this means that the pollution goes from Yugoslavia to Hungary, Germany, Croatia and Bosnia, or to Albania, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Greece.”

Swiss paid for silence?

Robert Parsons says that one directly informed source told him that in July 1999 a group of Swiss scientists came to even more dramatic conclusions about the effects of DU in the Balkans, then those contained in the prohibited report of Bakary Kante.

Their research was part of the activities of the diplomatic group FOCUS, consisted of Switzerland, Austria, Russia and Greece. As Switzerland was the one paying all the expenses, other members of the group had to remain silent, said Parsons.

Kante warned: “Radiological and chemical contamination do not make a difference between the military personnel who use these missiles, objectives, territories, innocent civilians, media, groups which are there to provide different kind of assistance, nor this contamination stops at state borders, or is time limited. The half-life of depleted uranium is 4.5 billion years”.

Staying in FRY in May 1999, while the bombing was underway, Kante witnessed ecological disaster: “Serious damage was caused to the human environment with destruction of oil refineries, oil-chemical complex, chemical and fertilizer plants, pharmaceutical and other industrial plants.

Existing and potential consequences of the conflict are serious for human environment and affect mostly Serbian part of FR Yugoslavia. Nature and also the population in the Balkans could also be in danger. If the pollution crosses Yugoslav border it could hit other countries in the region. It could also complicate the tragic situation of refugees in some neighboring countries,” says his report.

“The settlements in Kosovo are hit the hardest,” says Bakary. He concludes that “different kinds of international help is needed” so that FR Yugoslavia could face the consequences caused by the bombing to both human environment and the population.

DU penetrator from the A-10 30mm round. - Photo: Wikipedia
DU penetrator from the A-10 30mm round. – Photo: Wikipedia

Irradiated food

In his report Kante also warned: “NATO bombing has happened at the time of sowing of crops vital to the population – corn, sunflower, soybean, sugar beet and vegetables. Cast depleted uranium influenced the quality of air, soil, water, which resulted in both short-term and long-term consequences in the food chain”.

The truth can not be hidden – Robert Parsons

“While NATO trumpeted on all sides about its “humanitarian intervention”, the report we now talk about spoke of ecological disaster without precedent in European history,” said Parsons. He recalled that in May 1999 representatives of various UN organizations, among which UNEP, came to mission in FR Yugoslavia and that subsequently every agency should have sent its report.

“Something unusual happened – nobody spoke of the report of UNEP. As soon as it was submitted, the report was classified in the UN and hidden from the public. It probably ended up in the headquarters of UNEP in Nairobi. None of the humanitarian organizations in Geneva was aware of what was going on, not even the employees in the headquarters of UNEP in Geneva,” said Parsons.

“I received Bakary Kante’s report from my contact in UNEP. He gave me the code to use the photocopiers and I quickly printed 30 copies. Geneva “Le Courrier” gave me a whole page on June 19 1999 and I passed everything that was in the censored text,” said Parsons.

After reading the article in “Le Courrier”, UN agencies that participated in the mission in Yugoslavia addressed the reporter rather than the UN, asking him to send them the whole report as they received incomplete text from UNEP. Then a press conference was organized in which he asked Klaus Topfer, the Secretary General of UNEP, why was Kante’s report hidden from the public.

“Topfer said that the report was published and that nothing was hidden from the public. I then said that the report was published because I had published it. “Yes. And what is the problem?” Topfer asked me. I told him that he deprived other agencies of the Bakary Kante’s report although the mandate of UNEP mission in Yugoslavia required that the report is sent to all.

Topfer replied that all agencies got a copy of the report. ‘Well of course they received it because I had sent it to them!’ to which Topfer, again, coldly replied ‘Well, they received the report – what is the problem?’,” Parsons described some moments from the press conference.

Parsons added that the conference, held at the UN headquarters in Geneva, lasted almost an hour and that Topfer left the room dripping wet.

Gunner's mates inspect linked belts of Mark 149 Mod 2 20mm ammunition before loading it into the magazine of a Mark 16 Phalanx close-in weapons system aboard the battleship USS MISSOURI - Photo: Wikipedia
Gunner’s mates inspect linked belts of Mark 149 Mod 2 20mm ammunition before loading it into the magazine of a Mark 16 Phalanx close-in weapons system aboard the battleship USS MISSOURI – Photo: Wikipedia

9.45 tons of nuclear waste dumped on Kosovo

Parsons said that already in February 2000 the data of the Dutch government in outlines coincide with the data of the U.S. non-governmental organization MTP (Military Toxic Project). In January 2000 MTP asked the U.S. government to lift the confidentiality tag from the files on the use of DU in Kosovo. MTP received the file on January 30 2000 and based on it, the NGO calculated that 9.45 tons of nuclear waste was dumped on Kosovo.

White House knew that the bombs contained DU

It was only after a great public pressure that the Americans acknowledged that the ammunition was stuffed with “dirty” uranium, the most dangerous to humans and the environment.

The Balkan working group within UNEP was the one to alarm the world public on February 16 2001 by announcing that “dirty” uranium was dumped on Kosovo.

It was announced than that the analysis of 340 samples of soil, water, etc. had shown the presence of transuranium elements such as U-236 and traces of plutonium and fission processes. The presence of plutonium was confirmed by two laboratories – the Swedish Institute for Radiological Protection and the Swiss laboratory AC-Speiz.

 

Natasha Jokich Baldeck

32 COMMENTS

  1. This is a war crime. Bill Clinton and Madeleine Albright should be taken to the international court over this. This is a weapon of mass toxic contamination.

    • This type of action dumping so much ‘dirty uranium’ is a determined intention to destroy land, enviroment and the people not only now but for the future. Does the word ‘cleansing’ come to mind, only this will be for hundreds of years. Depleted uranium is kicked up with dust, poisons water systems and the land, leaving malignant cancers, birth defects and constant ill-health. What have these people been condemned to????

    • This is s PURE Propaganda of Serbian circles stimulating Albanian population in Kosova against America, but fortunately the Albanians are not so stupid to believe serbian propaganda.. anyway nice try a???????

    • Lile we dont know this ! Dear serbaian anemy for life . Please stop being so stupid jus look how small is Kosovo to Serbia and think did uranium bombs drop more in Kosovo them in serbia .
      Sooo you are saying that the bombs that drop in Kosovo from Nato they had uranium .
      But the bombs that dropt in Serbia they were 10 times mor bombs they dis not have uranium ?
      What so you think ?

    • @Fatmir, @Mett Majaci

      It is doubtful Kosovo would become truly independent any time soon. In my opinion, the Albanian population there has lost the most. They have no influence on any major decisions that really matter – economic development, investments, monetary system.
      All important decisions are made by NATO bureaucrates. The valuable resources of the province are being drained away by the western corporations, while the unemployment is 75%. And on top of that, the soil is permanently polluted with nuclear waste. The harsh reality is Albanians fought and died for a dream that never was. They fought and died for nothing. And now they will be dying of cancer, courtesy of Bill Clinton, Madeline Albright and NATO.

  2. The bombing of Serbia was an appalling act of betrayal on friends who during the second World War gave all for the protection of British interests in the Balkans, many paying with their lives. My father was devastated and felt horribly betrayed in the last years of his life at what the UK was doing to Yugoslavia.

    My father and many of the displaced former Yugoslav soldiers who did not want to serve the Communist regime that was assisted by British policy to raise to power during the war, ended up in Diaspora. His generation did not understand that the democratic societies of the world are as much victims of corrupt, criminal, vigilante setups that are out to enslave humanity as the societies that were bombed.

    Yugoslavia was broken up into small economically non-viable entities that post war, have to import everything they used to manufacture for themselves. The money such trade generates is taken out of the former Yugoslavia to enrich interests that were instrumental in destroying the country. In economic terms the regions of the former Yugoslavia are being stripped of resources and impoverished so that in time they will become a source of cheap labour. Currently, none of the regions are exporting as much as they are importing and there is a net flow of money out of all former states of Yugoslavia to enriching societies that bombed them.

    As an example only, Magnohrom in Kraljevo Serbia was an extremely successful manufacturer a leader of high temperature tolerating materials, that was systematically raped and destroyed by powerful economic interests and the manufacture of such materials taken up by facilities owned by those in charge of dropping the bombs on Serbia.

    The ugliness of the situation not only reflects in the betrayal of old and faithful friends but is consolidated by the ruthless poisoning the earth to inflict long lasting radiation poisoning of the fertile Serb lands. The “Gad” has no limit to its ugliness and makes it obvious to the world that these entities will do whatever it takes to maintain their supremacy over the cattle.

    It remains one of the most difficult things for the human spirit to deal with, namely that individuals who pretend to be your friends are the very ones who are planning to drop bombs on your family and destroy you and all that you stand for. Peculiar form of psychiatry that is extremely difficult for Christian souls to cope with.

    Well, the 99% of humanity which has families to bring up and short lives in which to accomplish their ambitions is not prepared to be subjected to such abuse and is beginning to understand the nature of the enemy within. Much of what is happening in the world today is directed by the ethos of this policy, see Silent Weapons for Quite Wars, [link]

    Those who implemented the carnage on the former Yugoslavia have already been judged guilty of crimes against humanity so what needs to be done is to dig up all the contaminated soil and dump it in the back gardens of those who dictated its use. Use International Law to enforce damages and costs of the clean up and hope that the example will prevent other such abuse.

  3. No wonder why Serbia has become such a promoter of Kosovo independence! It doesn’t want to deal with all this toxic uranium! It will bankrupt Serbia! No wonder there are border guards and customs agents and republic of Kosovo ballots and Serbia appointed an ambassador to Kosovo dejan pavicevic!

    • Let it go Boris, Kosovo was never a part of serbia in the hearts of the Albanians. It was an autonomous region, and not it is an independent country. Just give up already why carry all this hatred the next generations to come, why not be peaceful and just let everything go as is.

    • It is and it will be our holy land.As fare for you Šiptari,be prepare to leave when your West sponsores leave you by your own.We have not forgotten your atrocities committed by ‘Kosovo Liberation Army’.We will wait patiently.

    • Kosovo belongs to the Serbs and the Albanians. Although there are now many fewer Serbs, if we look at the history, it cannot be said that either a Serb or Albanian only. And about uranium, it was thrown in Serbia and on Kosovo, and now everyone, regardless of nationality or religion, feel the consequences.

  4. In view of the facts in this article, the nationalistic ramble of Serbs and my fellow Albanians in the comments section only illustrate how stu*id can the man be, when he wants to.

  5. To the ignorants who think that the US and UK helped liberating, yes they have but they have also destroyed a lot. The consequences are already present where people are diagnosed with cancer on daily basis. Babies are born with deformitites. The number keeps rising and eventually it will take its toll sooner rather than later. Kosovo has plenty of doctors but lacks medicine. If people of Kosovo were smarter, they should consider taking US and UK to court and demand medical help. Another thing they should consider is to stop using Monsanto GM seeds. If only people were smarter and realise their full intentions!!!
    As for the other half who are claiming that Kosovo is part of Serbia, I would suggest you go and google history more. You were under communist rule so undestandably you were limited as to what you could learn (and lack of ability). You are Slav people of Russia. So I don’t exactly see how Kosovo is Serb?! If some of you awaiting the exit of the West, Kosovo apparently has formed an army, so kicking ass will be harder to accopmlish. Worry when West leaves and they come for the land which belongs to them. Half of Serbia.
    Over and out!

  6. @ALL_KOSOVO_ALBANIANS regarding “Propaganda”. If you don’t believe this report, go check this out, you believe them, don’t you? NATO [link], US War Veterans [link], World Health Organizaton [link]. Read between the lines. Or not. You will certainly know if this was propaganda or not in a few years, since you are perfect experiment for all of them.

  7. 400 Bosnian Serbs from an area bombarded by NATO with depleted uranium shells in 1994 later died of various forms of cancer … Commenting on reports by experts from some Western countries that denied any link between radioactive weaponry and cancers “If it is so harmless as some people say, I would like them to collect all the remainders of the DU shells, take them to a nice house somewhere in Brussels, store the shells in the cellar and have their children playing in the house,” Doctor Zoran Stankovic said. WHO on DU: Gaps in knowledge exist and further research is recommended in key areas that would allow better health risk assessments to be made. In particular, studies are needed to clarify our understanding…

  8. There have been dozens of Italian peacekeepers who’d served in Kosovo and Bosnia, in areas where the DU was dropped most heavily, who have come down with leukemia and died. But other than that we don’t hear too much.

    It doesn’t seem like there is any big cancer epidemic in western Kosovo where most of it was dropped so maybe it didn’t spread as much as people think. And perhaps it was quietly cleaned up. I heard about truckloads of soil taken to Vinca area, so maybe the traitorous Serbian government agreed to quietly accept the contaminated soil of Kosovo???

    To Branko Babic: “The bombing of Serbia was an appalling act of betrayal on friends who during the second World War gave all for the protection of British interests in the Balkans, many paying with their lives. My father was devastated and felt horribly betrayed in the last years of his life at what the UK was doing to Yugoslavia.”

    That’s the thing, Branko, British were never your friends – they deceived you. For instance, the British supported the Ottomans and their Empire at Serbia’s (and other Christians’ expense). The only FEIGNED support to Draza Mihailovic until they could raise their counter army (and it was mainly counter to Draza). The would rather have the Serbs live under communism/dictator than be free and also sewn in again with the anti-Serbs then acquire more Serbian land which had unfairly been given to Croatia when it joined up with Serbia.
    The aid to Mihailovic was very low – just enough to try and string him along – but it was too little and that’s why he had a falling out with him. The Brits didn’t want to help him but SPY on him and gather info.
    Once Tito was up and running they and the U.S. gave thousands of time more aid to him and also there were British communist moles (Kluggman (sp?)) who were giving Tito FALSE CREDIT for successful attacks on the Germans by the Chetniks. If you read the book (and I think its text is online too) by Michael Lees called “The Rape of Serbia” you will see how the British were heavily betraying Serbs during that war.

    Furthermore, the “Allied” bombers were acting as Tito’s airforce and bombing SERB CIVILIANS, including apartment blocks and homes, WHILE LEAVING THE GESTAPO HEADQUARTERS IN BELGRADE untouched.
    The also allowed free passage of German planes out of Yugoslavia area when the Russians came in. There was some kind of deal between them during the waning several months.

    I also have a question on this:

    “As an example only, Magnohrom in Kraljevo Serbia was an extremely successful manufacturer a leader of high temperature tolerating materials, that was systematically raped and destroyed by powerful economic interests and the manufacture of such materials taken up by facilities owned by those in charge of dropping the bombs on Serbia.”

    When you say the manufacture was taken up by facilities owned by those who dropped the bombs, do you mean facilities in those countries (or outside of Serbia) or do you mean they came in and bought the facilities within Serbia and now run them?

    • Jj, British were more than friends to Serbia. They did, so to speak, fathered Serbia. Greece too. And all the Arab monarchies too. They fathered considerable noble families in Italy too (literally)…

      Serbia as a country (not talking here about some scattered Slavic tribes here and there) – was created by Brits. Brits not only did all the logistics and support at the international level, but they taught some manners to Serbian kings, lend money, trained the army, established universities, masonic lodges, and went to lengths as to establish the right national psyche (such as to write the myth of Kosovo, and the myth of south Slavic migrations – among other similar Serbian national psychological pillars).

      Brits wanted to keep control of the Balkans and to fill in the void created by the withdrawal Ottoman Empire from there. So they created two countries, Serbia and Greece.

      Serbia was created as a melting pot of the existing population in the region, mostly Slavic and Albanian orthodox tribes, then all the Vlahs and Cincars, and a little less Croats, Bosniacs, gypsies and whoever was there. In this regard, Serbian nation is similar to the American nation nowadays. And so is the Greek nation. Current Greeks have absolutely nothing in common with the ancient “real” Greeks. Most of the new “Greeks” had to be taught Greek language. ‘Cause they came from Turkey. As the Serbs came from… well you know this part better.

      But Brits also dismantled Arab monarchies, one by one, when they saw it fit. So did they do with Serbia. And will do it to Kosovo too, when it serves no purpose to them any longer.

      To get back to the topic which, as most any discussion in the Balkans, is not about the topic, imagine if everyone in the Balkans was made to undergo DNA test. I wonder how many devoted patriots on all sides would carry on their first kill of the enemy, by triumphantly committing suicide.
      Who needs DU?

  9. What you said about Britain in Serbia is entirely untrue. Serbian Royalty was existing in the early Middle Ages and they were close to the Byzantine Empire. And Serbs were ALREADY LIVING in the Balkans when they were first written about.
    The so-called Slavic migration was much smaller and mainly in the north.
    Serbs are comprised of the people were were already living there. Serbs lived under other names in their history such as Rascians.
    There were also Roman records of Serbs – Serboi – living along the Vardar River in Macedonia in the 6th century. The Serbs there were mass transferred by the Romans to a place called Gordoservon, which is now in modern day Turkey.

    The claims of a huge Slavic migration were the work of Austrians and Germans who also pushed the dubious Illyria connection for Albanians.
    Previous to that Serbs were calling themselves Illyrians and also Austrian records in the 18th century termed them that:
    In official Habsburg documents from the 18th century the Serbs of Habsburg Monarchy were mentioned as Rasciani (“Rascians”), Natio Rasciana (“Rascian nation”), Illyri (“Illyrians”) and Natio Illyrica (“Illyrian nation”).

    But when the Croats started their Pan-Illyria and Pan-Slavic movements (because they wanted Serbs’ help to get them out from the Austro-Hungarian domination) the Austrians became alarmed and started suppressing Serbs and Croats calling themselves Illyrians, while all the same time they started pushing in for Albanians.

    Albanians speak a language from an unrelated branch anyway (satem).

    • Jj, see for yourself, here: [link]

      Look for the mourners on the last rows, behind the clergyman with black caps. Pay attention what they wear on their heads: it looks pretty familiar to what Albanians use to put on their heads, doesn’t it. I’m sure the teacher missed to explain this detail to you, but there it is now. Never to late to learn new things. While we’re at it, perhaps it was these Albanians in these paintings that watched over the christian shrines in Kosovo for centuries. Hint: look for the meaning of “Vojvod” among the Albanians.

      And what about this painting by Paja Jovanovic, “Velika seoba srba”: [link]
      It seems to me that apart from the military and the clergy, all other dudes in this painting wear the Albanian traditional white clothes with black stripes. For that matter, most Paja Jovanovic’s paintings depict some Albanian in it, which always seemed peculiar to me. Did Paja portrayed some other reality of that time which is way different than the one of hatred among the peoples of the Balkans of our current time? Did Paja, without much care for current Serb patriotism cliches, show that Albanians were of christian descent too? And that Serb and Albanian were all too close under the Turks?

      And then, Jj, have a though on this one, my favourite one, the invention of term “Oldserbia” and the “Oldserbian” language. Why have those terms at all? Why did Serb patriots of that time didn’t call the newly occupied southern territories simply as Serbia, the people there as Serbs and why bother invent a new language: Starosrpski?!

      Maybe, just maybe, it was because these people down there didn’t look as much as like what standard Serbs looked, didn’t wear what the Serbs wore, and didn’t speak what the Serbs spoke. Yet, they were Christians, for the most part, and that of the east christian variety, the orthodox Albanian christian as some still call ourselves.

      Not trying to change any history here, just your mind maybe, on a totally unrelated topic, as usual.

  10. You guys might want to watch this: This stuff was dropped in over 2000 tons on iraq which makes entire areas now unibhabitable there and the same happening in afghanistan near major water sources:

    [link]

    And yes it is a war crime. All three wars were illegal, all three wars were started based on lies and all used illegal weaponry that will cause millions of deaths in the poopulations for years to come AND has already caused thousands of deaths among the soldiers who fought those wars in good faith.

  11. I am visiting Tokyo, where I have bought a geiger counter to measure the radiation I am receiving from the continuing leak at Fukushima. When I return to Belgrade next week I will compare the readings I am seeing here in Tokyo to what we are exposed to in Belgrade.

    The use of depleted uranium weapons against us was intentional, and follows a pattern of genocide lasting more than a century against Serbs that is excellently documented in the books of respected writer Smilja Avramov.

    We are a free, strong and independent people. Our example of defending our freedom is the single biggest threat to the US/NATO empire. If their own people ever see how we have successfully defended ourselves against the globalist military industrial empire they might even turn against their own masters. That is why they elitist clique that rules the West through their media propaganda hates us so much.

    We need to fight on, just for the right to exist. If we do not do what we were born to do, the weaker nations of this world will have little chance of ever being free. What we do is for ourselves and for the freedom-seeking peoples of the the entire world.

    Long live the Serbs!

    John Bosnitch
    Journalist

    • Within a few months, the isotopes of Th-234 and Pa-234m grow in to the value given by the activity of the U-238. The total activity in the depleted uranium then remains constant for around 10,000 years.

      Then, Th-230 with all its decay products starts growing in. After around 100,000 years, U-234 grows in to the activity level given by the U-238, further promoting the ingrowth of Th-230 and decay products.

      After around 2 million years, all nuclides are in secular equilibrium, and the total activity reaches a maximum and remains at this level for a billion years.
      From residual U-235, Th-231 grows in within a few days. After around 10,000 years, Pa-231 and all other decay products of the U-235 series start growing in.

      [link]

  12. The west(anglosas) is afraid of Slavs. They dont understand our culture, our conservative way of life. They dont want us to be united and strong(we can see this all the time). Greetings from Slovakia

LEAVE A REPLY