CARACAS, Venezuela – The Venezuelan National Electoral Council (CNE) has announced their approval of the first stage of the recall process against President Nicolás Maduro in which 1 percent of the registered electorate signed a recall petition.

Tibisay Lucena, the CNE head, said that her electoral body has given the green light for the second stage of the recall process to now begin after the first round concluded and was approved by the CNE.

In early May, the opposition coalition Democratic Unity Roundtable (MUD) officially initiated the recall effort when the CNE approved their request to place ballot boxes across the country.

Citizens filed through and the opposition said they gathered 1.8 million votes in just three days, well over the 198,000 signatures (or 1 percent of the registered electorate) needed in order for an official plebiscite to be called. The signatures are then to be reviewed and confirmed.

For this process, the electoral body invited all those that signed the recall petition and were not one of the some 500,000 whose signatures were deemed to be fraudulent to confirm their identities by reporting to regional CNE offices and having their fingerprints taken and compared with their fingerprints already on file.

In June, the CNE announced that over 500,000 of the 1.8 million signatures were were fraudulent; names listed were those of deceased individuals, unregistered or nonexistent individuals and other invalid types of signatures, according to the CNE.

Regardless, the remaining 1.3 million valid signatures were more than enough given that less than 198,000 were needed for the first round of the recall process to advance, even though the CNE still reported several thousand “fraudulent” identities that signed the petition for a second time.

According to Lucena, the MUD now has two days to file a formal petition with the CNE in order for the recall process to continue. If that is carried out, the CNE must announce within 15 days when the next stage will begin.

The next step of the process is a repeat of the first step with a count of 20 percent (4 million) of the electorate instead of 1 percent of the electorate, but the signatures must be collected within 3 days.

If enough signatures are collected during the second step, the CNE will then count and review the signatures. Once the CNE approves, the official referendum vote must be called within 90 days.

For Maduro’s mandate to be revoked, the votes in favor of a recall must surpass the number of votes he gathered in the 2013 election, which means that over 7.5 Venezuelans must vote against Maduro in order for the recall effort to succeed.

The opposition has already accused the CNE of purposely dragging its feet and delaying the recall effort, which the opposition estimates will last approximately seven months from start to finish (May to November).

The eleectoral body, however, says that it is burdened because recall petitions (and subsequent votes) must go through audit procedures, and these procedures require a significant amount of time and manpower from government workers charged with carrying out the process.

Indeed, the primary issue of the recall effort is timing: the MUD says that there is more than enough popular support for unseating Maduro (and their assertions are backed by several polls) but when this happens will have future consequences.

If the recall process gathers enough votes as expected to unseat Maduro before January 10, 2017, presidential elections would be called within a month. If Maduro is removed after that date, however, then current Vice-President Aristóbulo Istúriz of Maduro’s United Socialist Party of Venezuela (PSUV) will take his place and finish the mandate as scheduled in January of 2019, ensuring no change in policy.

For this reason, followers of the MUD have marched several times on the CNE’s headquarters in Caracas to place pressure on the body to rapidly carry out the recall process.

Clashes ensue between demonstrators and security forces as a minority of the latter hurl bottles and rocks at police as the marches wind down. Security forces, acting as a buffer between the crowd and the CNE offices, then retaliate with tear gas to disperse the crowd. The scene repeats itself at every march, just as it in its last edition on on Friday, July 29.

Henrique Capriles Radonski, the MUD’s most visible figure, has criticized the speed at which the recall process is moving but he is still insisting that the “recall will happen in 2016.”

“Now, we are preparing for the next stage of the recall process in which we must manifest the will of 4 million Venezuelans, or 20 percent of the electorate, in order to finally activate our recall referendum. This is an option for the people but an obligation for the government as they are not above the Constitution nor is anybody else,” Capriles Radonski said.

“The government does not want a recall, but the people of Venezuela want a recall, and the will of the people will be done,” Capriles Radonski proclaimed.

The MUD is now putting together the second stage proposal that will be handed over to the CNE, and it will include demands that the electoral body provide more signature tables and recall signature centers nationwide.

In the December 2015 election, the PSUV lost their majority in the National Assembly for the first time since 1999 (back when their coalition was known as the Fifth Republic Movement). On the other hand, the MUD won big and became the majority in the unicameral parliamentary chamber.

Maduro, through the TSJ, has passed certain laws and overruled bills created by the MUD in the National Assembly since the parliamentary election. Seeing no way around this clash of government branches, the MUD has now as a unit rallied around the goal of removing Maduro three years before his mandate expires.

Maduro’s predecessor, the popular Hugo Chávez, was elected for yet another term in the presidential election of late 2012. Following Chávez’s death in March of 2013, Maduro served as the interim leader until a new election was held a year later where he narrowly defeated Henrique Capriles Radonski of the MUD. This ensured that Maduro would finish the term for which Chávez was elected, which is scheduled to end in early February of 2019.

Led by Chávez, the “Bolivarian Revolution” was immensely popular in Venezuela for well over a decade but a series of developments over the last several years severely damaged its popularity and reputation.

Fed up with issues like high inflation, shortages of essentials like food products and medicine, high crime rates, insecurity and what they deem to be political repression, the populace of Venezuela has been increasingly turning away from the PSUV, especially since the death of Chávez in March of 2013 and the subsequent worsening economic situation in the country, brought about mostly by the sharp fall of oil prices and other commodities.

For those same reasons, various anti-government groups and opposition leaders took to the streets on February 12, 2014, and the violent march that ensued ended in three dead and hundreds injured. The demonstrations, organized and led by opposition figure Leopoldo López, who remains jailed, intensified for several weeks thereafter and left 43 Venezuelans dead (mostly security figures) before calm returned to the nation.